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Details for messenger / hormone: retinoic acid

EndoNet ID: ENH00743

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  • RA
  • retinoic acid

General information

  • The role of retinoic acid during forebrain development begins late when Raldh3 generates retinoic acid in the ventral subventricular zone. [1]
  • Retinoic acid induces an oral metaplasia in cultured epidermal keratinocytes and reduces the amount of galectin-7, but does not eliminate it. [2]
  • Retinoids are a group of molecules derived from vitamin A, which play an important role in lung development. [3]
  • Retinoic acid induces glandular differentiation of the oesophagus. [4]
  • Retinol and retinoic acid bind human serum albumin. [5]
  • Retinoic acid and nerve growth factor induce differential regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit expression in SN56 cells. [6]
  • Retinoic acid inhibits HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation through the cAMP pathway. [7]
  • All-trans retinoic acid induces in vitro angiogenesis via retinoic acid receptor. [8]
  • Cyp26 enzymes generate the retinoic acid response pattern necessary for hindbrain development. [9]
  • Regulation of the CYP 2 family involves nuclear receptors related to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, such as the constitutive androstane receptor and the retinoic acid receptor. Retinoic acid is a CYP 2C (CYP 2C8) substrate, thus the regulation of CYP 2C8 expression by a receptor that is activated by an endogenous substrate such as retinoic acid is not surprising. CYP 2C9, which is highly homologous to CYP 2C8, is inducible in primary human hepatocytes by xenobiotics including dexamethasone and phenobarbital. [10]


Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • cardiovascular control
      • ion flow control
      • development and growth
        • embryogenesis

        Chemical classification

        Links to other resources


          basophil thyrotroph cell of anterior pituitary Present
          • TSH
          chondrocyte Present
          • skeletal system development
          hepatocyte Present
          lung Present
          macrophage Present
          • Positive regulator of inflammatory cytokine production