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Details for messenger / hormone: galectin-9

EndoNet ID: ENH00749

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Synonyms

  • tumor antigen HOM-HD-21
  • galectin-9
  • LGALS9
  • lectin galactoside-binding soluble 9
  • ecalectin
  • HOM-HD-21
  • UAT

General information

  • UAT, also designated galectin 9, is a multifunctional protein that can function as a urate channel/transporter, a regulator of thymocyte-epithelial cell interactions, a tumor antigen, an eosinophil chemotactic factor, and a mediator of apoptosis. [1]
  • Galectin-9 induces apoptosis through the calcium-calpain-caspase-1 pathway. [2]
  • IFN-gamma induces the expression of galectin-9. [3]
  • Binds galactosides. May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. The isoform Short acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant. Is a ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3. Induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death. [4]
  • Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. [5]
  • The isoform with the longest linker peptide, that is, galectin-9L (G9L), is highly susceptible to thrombin cleavage, whereas the predominant isoform, galectin-9M (G9M), was resistant to thrombin. [6]
  • Galectin-8 and galectin-9, which each consist of two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) joined by a linker peptide, belong to the tandem-repeat-type subclass of the galectin family. [6]
  • The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. [7]
  • Interleukin-1beta stimulates galectin-9 expression in human astrocytes. [8]
  • Galectin-9 is an eosinophil chemoattractant produced by activated T lymphocytes. [8]
  • Gal-9 strongly and specifically bound IgE, which is a heavily glycosylated immunoglobulin, and that the interaction prevented IgE-antigen complex formation, clarifying the mode of action of the anti-degranulation effect. [9]
  • Gal-9 is an autocrine regulator of mast cell function to suppress excessive degranulation. [9]

Classification

Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • cancer / metastasis
      • apoptosis

      Chemical classification

      Links to other resources

      UniProt O00182
      Ensembl ENST00000448970
      KEGG hsa:3965

        Targets

        CellTim-3
        No records found.
        Reference