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Details for messenger / hormone: Granulin-1

EndoNet ID: ENH01089

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Synonyms

  • granulin E
  • granulin D
  • granulin C
  • granulin A
  • granulin B
  • granulin F
  • granulin G
  • Granulins
  • Granulin-1
  • Proepithelin
  • PEPI
  • GRN
  • Progranulin
  • PGRN

General information

  • FTD in these families results from PGRN haploinsufficiency rather than the accumulation of mutant protein [1]
  • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) population, 5–10% of patients were found to have mutations in PGRN...PGRN expression is also substantially increased in Alzheimer's disease. [1]
  • PGRN is an important modulator of wound healing in peripheral tissues.The secreted protein accelerates neutrophil and macrophage activity, and promotes the neovascularization of damaged tissue. [1]
  • PGRN in the hypothalamus is highly regulated by androgens during critical periods of virilization in the CNS. [1]

Classification

Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • cardiovascular control
    • development and growth
      • growth stimulation
      • immune response
        • activation

        Chemical classification

        • hormone
          • genome-encoded
            • cytokines
              • granulin family

          Composition

          Granulin-1

          Sequence
          GGPCQVDAH CSAGHSCIF TVSGTSSCC 
          PFPEAVACG DGHHCCPRG FHCSADGRS 
          CF

          Granulin-6

          Sequence
          IGCDQHTSC PVGQTCCPS LGGSWACCQ 
          LPHAVCCED RQHCCPAGY TCNVKARSC 
          E

          Granulin-2

          Sequence
          AIQCPDSQF ECPDFSTCC VMVDGSWGC 
          CPMPQASCC EDRVHCCPH GAFCDLVHT 
          RCI

          Granulin-3

          • Granulin-3 works as an antagonist to Granulin-4 by inhibiting the proliferation.
          Sequence
          VMCPDARSR CPDGSTCCE LPSGKYGCC 
          PMPNATCCS DHLHCCPQD TVCDLIQSK 
          CL

          Granulin-4

          • Granulin-4 provides growth of the epithelial cell line A431.p
          Sequence
          DVKCDMEVS CPDGYTCCR LQSGAWGCC 
          PFTQAVCCE DHIHCCPAG FTCDTQKGT 
          CE

          Granulin-5

          Sequence
          VPCDNVSSC PSSDTCCQL TSGEWGCCP 
          IPEAVCCSD HQHCCPQGY TCVAEGQCQ

          Paragranulin

          Sequence
          TRCPDGQFC PVACCLDPG GASYSCCRP 
          LLD

          Granulin-7

          Sequence
          DVECGEGHF CHDNQTCCR DNRQGWACC 
          PYRQGVCCA DRRHCCPAG FRCAARGTK 
          CL

          Acrogranin; Progranulin

          • Elastase and other extracellular proteases can cleave PGRN within the linker regions [2]
          • Undergoes alternate splicing with exon skipping. [1]
          Sequence
          TRCPDGQFC PVACCLDPG GASYSCCRP 
          LLDKWPTTL SRHLGGPCQ VDAHCSAGH 
          SCIFTVSGT SSCCPFPEA VACGDGHHC 
          CPRGFHCSA DGRSCFQRS GNNSVGAIQ 
          CPDSQFECP DFSTCCVMV DGSWGCCPM 
          PQASCCEDR VHCCPHGAF CDLVHTRCI 
          TPTGTHPLA KKLPAQRTN RAVALSSSV 
          MCPDARSRC PDGSTCCEL PSGKYGCCP 
          MPNATCCSD HLHCCPQDT VCDLIQSKC 
          LSKENATTD LLTKLPAHT VGDVKCDME 
          VSCPDGYTC CRLQSGAWG CCPFTQAVC 
          CEDHIHCCP AGFTCDTQK GTCEQGPHQ 
          VPWMEKAPA HLSLPDPQA LKRDVPCDN 
          VSSCPSSDT CCQLTSGEW GCCPIPEAV 
          CCSDHQHCC PQGYTCVAE GQCQRGSEI 
          VAGLEKMPA RRASLSHPR DIGCDQHTS 
          CPVGQTCCP SLGGSWACC QLPHAVCCE 
          DRQHCCPAG YTCNVKARS CEKEVVSAQ 
          PATFLARSP HVGVKDVEC GEGHFCHDN 
          QTCCRDNRQ GWACCPYRQ GVCCADRRH 
          CCPAGFRCA ARGTKCLRR EAPRWDAPL 
          RDPALRQLL

          Links to other resources

          UniProt P28799-1
          Ensembl ENST00000053867
          KEGG hsa:2896
          • Anatomical structure: epithelial_cell

          • Anatomical structure: hematopoietic_stem_cell

            • PGRN is highly expressed by cells with a high mitotic rate and low expression is found in tissues with less proliferative activity. [1]
          • Anatomical structure: lymphoid_tissue

          • Anatomical structure: mucosa_of_gastric_wall

          • Anatomical structure: spleen

          • Anatomical structure: skin

          • Anatomical structure: leukocyte

          • Anatomical structure: prosencephalon

          • Anatomical structure: olfactory_bulb

          • Anatomical structure: spinal_cord

          • Anatomical structure: Purkinje_cell

          • Anatomical structure: pyramidal_layer_of_hippocampus

          • Anatomical structure: pyramidal_layer_of_hippocampus

          Targets

          CellTLR9
          bronchial epithelial cell Present
          cholangiocyte Present
          dendritic cell in lymphoid tissues Present
          Influences
          • IFN-alpha
          • IFN-beta
          epithelial cell with microvilli Present
          lung Present
          lymph node Present
          macrophage Present
          Influences
          • IL-1 beta
          monocyte Present
          neutrophil granulocyte Present
          spleen Present
          tonsil Present
          Reference