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Details for messenger / hormone: sphingosine 1-phosphate

EndoNet ID: ENH01131

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Synonyms

  • sphingosine 1-phosphate
  • S1P

General information

  • S1P is a bioactive lysophospholipid that elicits diverse physiological effect on most types of cells and tissues.
  • This sphingolipid metabolite has both cell intrinsic and extrinsic activity, affecting cell homeostasis and function. [1]
  • Function: potent vasoconstrictor of cerebral arteries. [2]
  • S1P can act as morphogenetic factor in skeletal muscle cells. [3]
  • Growing evidence indicates that S1P signaling is involved in muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation of muscle cells. [4]

Classification

Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • cardiovascular control

    Chemical classification

    Links to other resources

    • Anatomical structure: lymph_node

      • In the lymph, S1P levels are in the hundred-nanomolar range. [5]
    • Anatomical structure: blood

      • In the blood, S1P levels are in the low-micromolar range and are mainly contributed by erythrocytes. [6]
    • Anatomical structure: red_blood_cell

    • Anatomical structure: continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics

      • Endothelial cells that are subjected in vitro to laminar shear stress, which is a physiological stimulus, have increased production and secretion of S1P. [7]
    • Anatomical structure: platelet

      • Platelets can secrete S1P when activated by thrombin or IgE-bound antigen, respectively. [7]
    • Anatomical structure: mast_cell

      • Mast cells can secrete S1P when activated by thrombin or IgE-bound antigen, respectively. [8]

    Targets

    CellG-protein coupled receptor 12Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5
    adipose tissue Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • promotion of mesenchymal cell differentiation
    adrenal gland Present
    Influences
    • aldosterone
    aorta Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of angiogenesis
    appendix Present
    B-lymphocyte Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    Present
    bone marrow Present
    brain Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of neuron differentiation
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of neurogenesis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • neuron projection morphogenesis
    Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • proliferation of radial glia cells
    • astrocyte development
    continuous vascular endothelial cell of blood vessels and lymphatics Present
    Phenotypes
    • cell-cell junction organization
    • vasculogenesis
    • positive regulation of endothelial cell migration
    • regulation of endothelial cell differentiation
    corpus callosum Present
    dendritic cell in lymphoid tissues Present
    Phenotypes
    • dendritic cell chemotaxis
    Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • dendritic cell chemotaxis
    • positive regulation of endocytosis
    • positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of T cell differentiation
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    • dendritic cell chemotaxis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • dendritic cell chemotaxis
    eosinophil granulocyte Present
    Present
    Present
    epithelial cell Present
    fibroblast Present
    heart Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • heart development
    Present
    immune system Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of chemotaxis
    • negative regulation of chemotaxis
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    Present
    Present
    Present
    Present
    keratinocyte Present
    Present
    Present
    Present
    Present
    kidney Present
    Present
    Present
    killer cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of leukocyte migration
    killer T cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of chemotaxis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of chemotaxis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of chemotaxis
    leukocyte Present
    liver Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • hepatic stellate cell migration
    Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • hepatic stellate cell migration
    Present
    lung Present
    Influences
    • interleukin 6
    Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • adherens junction assembly
    Present
    Present
    lymph node Present
    lymphocyte Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • LGL leukemia
    macrophage Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of cytokine production
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of cytokine production
    mast cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of mast cell degranulation
    melanocyte Present
    neuron Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of membrane potential
    • negative regulation of neuron projection development
    oligodendrocyte Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of myelination
    osteoblast Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation
    Present
    pancreas Present
    peripheral blood leukocytes Present
    Present
    placenta Present
    Present
    skeleton muscle Present
    Present
    skin Present
    small intestine Present
    smooth muscle cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration
    • heart development
    • positive regulation of angiogenesis
    • regulation of inflammatory response
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of cell proliferation
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • vasoconstriction
    • regulation of inflammatory response
    spleen Present
    Present
    Present
    Present
    Present
    stomach Present
    T-lymphocyte Present
    Phenotypes
    • cell maturation
    • negative regulation of interferon-gamma production
    • positive regulation of interleukin-4 production
    • regulation of T cell proliferation
    • T cell differentiation during immune response
    • positive regulation of leukocyte migration
    • regulation of leukocyte migration
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of T cell apoptosis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of T cell apoptosis
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production
    • positive regulation of interleukin-10 production
    • positive regulation of leukocyte migration
    testis Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • reproduction
    thymus Present
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of chemotaxis
    Present
    Present
    thyroid gland Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of cellular calcium homeostasis
    umbilical vein endothelial cells Present
    Phenotypes
    • venous endothelial cell differentiation
    vascularendothelial cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of cardiovascular system
    • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
    • positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
    • positive regulation of angiogenesis
    • adherens junction assembly
    Present
    Phenotypes
    • positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
    • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
    • adherens junction assembly
    white matter Present
    Phenotypes
    • regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation
    Reference