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Details for messenger / hormone: Thymulin

EndoNet ID: ENH01135

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  • Thymulin
  • FTS
  • serum thymic factor

General information

  • Thymulin is a thymic hormone exclusively produced by the thymic epithelial cells. It consists of a nonapeptide component coupled to the ion zinc, which confers biological activity to the molecule. [1]
  • Function: Antiinflammatory effect in combination with Zn++ in the alveolar epithelium. [2]


Hormone function

  • immune response
    • activation

    Chemical classification


    Subunit (1 times)


    Links to other resources

    • Anatomical structure: thymic_epithelial_cell

      • Thymulin production and secretion is strongly influenced by the neuroendocrine system. [1]

      Influenced by:

      • PRLR
        in thymic_epithelial_cell
        • Prolactin augments the production of a thymic hormone, thymulin. [3]
        • PRL can stimulate thymulin synthesis and secretion both in vitro and in vivo. [3]
      • FTS receptor
        in thymic_epithelial_cell
        • Thymulin exerts a controlling feedback effect on its own secretion both in vivo and in vitro. Synthesis of this hormone can be down-regulated by the hormone itself. [4]
      • growth hormone receptor
        in thymic_epithelial_cell
        • In vitro, human GH can stimulate thymulin release from TEC lines. [5]
        • It is likely that these effects of GH are mediated, at least in part, by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as suggested by the fact that the GH-induced enhancement of thymulin production could be prevented by previous treatment with antibodies against IGF-1 or IGF-1 receptor. [5]
      • thyroid hormone receptor
        in thymic_epithelial_cell
        • The thyroid axis also influences thymulin secretion. Thus, T4 has been shown to stimulate thymulin synthesis and secretion in mice. [6]
        • In vivo treatment of mice with triiodothyronine enhanced thymulin secretion. [7]
        • Thyroid hormones stimulate thymulin secretion by a direct action on TEC. [8]
      • ACTH receptor
        in thymic_epithelial_cell
        • Although there are no studies documenting a direct effect of gonadotropins or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on thymulin secretion gonadectomy or adrenalectomy in mice is known to induce a transient decrease in serum thymulin levels. This effect is potentiated by the simultaneous removal of the adrenals and gonads. [9]
        • In TEC cultures it was shown that exposure to physiological levels of glucocorticoids or gonadal steroids enhanced thymulin concentration in the cell supernatants. [10]


    No records found.